We partner with dozens of cultural organizations yearly. We are a Founding Member of the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C., Global Sponsor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and serve as the main sponsor of approximately ten museum exhibitions a year.
Access Opera: Open Rehearsals for Students
Andy Warhol – from A to B and Back Again
National Tour Sponsor
Bank of America is pleased to be the National Tour Sponsor for Andy Warhol – from A to B and Back Again, the first and largest Warhol retrospective organized in the United States since 1989. Building on an abundance of new materials and research that has emerged since the artist’s untimely death, this exhibition reveals new discoveries and introduces a Warhol for the twenty-first century.
The bank’s support will help make the exhibition possible in three venues: The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, from November 12, 2018, through March 31, 2019; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, May 18, 2019, through September 2, 2019; and the Art Institute of Chicago, October 20, 2019, through January 26, 2020.
The Whitney will participate in the bank’s Museums on Us® program from January through March 2019. This program offers our cardholders one free general admission on the first full weekend of every month. Please visit Museums on Us® for additional details.
This major reexamination of the work of Andy Warhol (American, 1928–1987) is an opportunity to experience and reconsider the work of this inventive, highly influential artist. The exhibition brings together more than 350 works spanning Warhol’s forty-year career. Through his carefully cultivated persona and willingness to experiment with nontraditional art-making techniques, Warhol understood the growing power of images in modern life and helped to expand the role of the artist in society, making him one of the most distinctive and internationally recognized American artists.
Bank of America has supported the Whitney Museum of American Art since 2001. In addition to ongoing support for the museum’s permanent collection and sponsorship of selected exhibitions, we have also supported the Whitney’s education initiatives, along with the construction of the Whitney’s newest home on Gansevoort Street in downtown Manhattan.
Designed by Pritzker Architecture Prize winner Renzo Piano and conceived as a laboratory for artists, the Whitney’s 220,000-square-foot home opened to the public on May 1, 2015. The new building almost doubled the Whitney’s exhibition and programming space, offering the most expansive display of its permanent collection of twentieth and twenty-first-century modern and contemporary American art, as well as an array of temporary exhibitions, including the museum’s signature Whitney Biennial.
Recent exhibitions at the Whitney sponsored by Bank of America include Grant Wood: American Gothic and Other Fables (March 2–June 10, 2018) and America Is Hard to See (May 1–September 27, 2015), which took the inauguration of the museum’s new building as an opportunity to reexamine the history of art in the United States from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present.
Andy Warhol (American, 1928–1987)
Acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen
20” x 16”
The Art Institute of Chicago; gift of Edlis / Neeson Collection
© The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Artists Rights Society (ARS) New York
Carnegie International, 57th Edition, 2018
Carnegie Museum of Art
Bank of America is pleased to be the presenting sponsor of Carnegie International, 57th Edition, 2018, the flagship exhibition of contemporary art at the Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh. The exhibition, which opened on October 13, 2018, and drew an audience of nearly 6,000 visitors during its first weekend, will be on view through March 25, 2019.
After traveling to twenty-three countries on five continents to explore the global currents of contemporary art, Ingrid Schaffner, curator of the exhibition, spent three years selecting and organizing an array of works asking visitors to consider the meaning of “international” at a time when questions about nations, nationalism, boundaries and border crossings are being considered worldwide.
Focusing on four themes—Children, Politics, Beauty and Sound—the exhibition invites visitors to make their own connections in the presence of the art alongside others, with recurring programming that offers myriad points of entry for different audiences, and one-time-only programs that create opportunities for returning visitors to experience new aspects of the show.
Multidisciplinary and experiential, Carnegie International, 57th Edition, 2018 brings together the works of local and international filmmakers, musicians, painters and sculptors as well as artists working in situ in a studio, an eclectic array of live performances, lectures and improvisational art classes.
Zoe Leonard (American, b. 1961)
Prologue: El Rio / The River, 2018
© Zoe Leonard, Courtesy the artist, Hauser & Wirth and Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne
Renoir père et fils: Peinture et cinéma
(Renoir, Father and Son: Painting and Cinema)
Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Bank of America is proud to sponsor Renoir père et fils : Peinture et cinéma (Renoir, Father and Son: Painting and Cinema), which opened at the Françoise Cachin Gallery at the Musée d’Orsay, Paris, on November 6, 2018, and will remain on view through January 27, 2019.
Organized by the Musée d’Orsay and the Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris, and the Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia, with the collaboration of La Cinémathèque française, Paris, the exhibition explores a rich dialogue between the works of Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919), the Impressionist artist hailed as one of the masters of French art in the early twentieth century, and his son, Jean Renoir (1894–1979), considered to be one of the world’s finest film directors. Both artists explored and endeavored to capture the transient beauty of life1.
Through paintings, film clips, photographs, costumes, posters, drawings and documents, some of which are on display for the first time, this exhibition animates the interplay between father and son, between two artists, and between painting and cinema, featuring themes and locations common to two influential bodies of work.
Pierre Bonnard (French, 1867–1947)
Auguste and Jean Renoir, c. 1916
Proof on albumen paper from negative, gelatin silver bromide print
Photo © Musée d’Orsay, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Patrice Schmidt
Gordon Parks: The New Tide, Early Work 1940-1950
National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
Bank of America is proud to sponsor the traveling exhibition Gordon Parks: The New Tide, Early Work 1940–1950, on view in the West Building of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. from November 4, 2018 through February 18, 2019.
Following its debut at the National Gallery of Art, the exhibition will travel to The Cleveland Museum of Art, from March 23 to June 16, 2019; the Amon Carter Museum of American Art in Fort Worth, Texas from August 31 to December 29, 2019; and the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, in Andover, Massachusetts from February 1 to April 26, 2020.
The exhibition, the first to chronicle the formative beginnings of African American photographer Gordon Parks’ (1912–2006) distinguished career, provides a detailed look at his early evolution through some 150 photographs, as well as rare magazines, newspapers, pamphlets, and books.
Gordon Parks: The New Tide, Early Work 1940–1950 is divided into five sections. A Choice of Weapons (1940–1942) includes portraits of influential Chicago figures, including South Side Community Art Center director Peter Pollack, renowned poet and playwright Langston Hughes, philosophy professor and architect of the New Negro movement Alain Locke, and opera singer Todd Duncan. Government Work (1942) features photographs created during his short time with the Farm Security Administration. Parks was tasked with photographing the Frederick Douglass Dwellings—quality public housing recently constructed in DC's Anacostia neighborhood for black defense workers.
While the exhibition features his promotional pictures of federal efforts to improve conditions for African Americans, also documented are the continuing effects of racism in DC, perhaps best personified by his now iconic portrait, Washington, D.C. Government charwoman.
The Home Front (1942–1943) presents examples of Parks' projects for the Office of War Information, including photographs of fishermen in Gloucester, Massachusetts and the Fulton Fish Market in New York City, as part of a series on food production during World War II.
Standard Oil (1944–1948), features photographs Parks produced for Roy Stryker in his new role at Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), capturing “the face of oil” in the northeast of the United States and parts of Canada.
Mass Media (1945–1950), focuses on Parks' photography for major fashion and lifestyle magazines as well as Parks’ chronicling of youth gangs in Harlem, which would lead to the publishing by Life magazine of his photo essay, "Harlem Gang Leader", and a staff position for Parks with the magazine.
Gordon Parks (American, 1912 – 2006)
Charles White in front of his mural “Chaos of the American Negro”, 1941
Gelatin silver print
7 13/16” × 9 7/16”
The Charles White Archives
Photograph by Gordon Parks. Courtesy of and copyright The Gordon Parks Foundation.
Once Upon a Time in America
Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, Germany
Bank of America is pleased to sponsor Once Upon a Time in America at the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne, Germany. From November 24, 2018, to March 24, 2019, the museum will present a sweeping survey of American art from 1650 to 1950, exploring the colonial era to the masters of American Realism, and ending with examples of Abstract Expressionism.
Bringing together more than 120 works on loan from renowned collections and museums throughout the United States and Europe, the landmark exhibition showcases three centuries of artistic styles and movements within the United States. The majority of works have rarely been seen in Germany. Organized chronologically and divided into eight chapters, the exhibition provides audiences with a panoramic view of moments in American history and art.
The vitality and innovation of American artists can be seen across a variety of media including paintings, sculptures and photographs. From the colonial era are works by little known Native American artists, a portrait by Gustaf Hesselius of Lappawinsoe, as well as history paintings by Benjamin West and John Singleton Copley. Examples of American Realism, Romanticism, Modernism, and Abstract Expressionism are featured in works by John Quincy Adams Ward, Edward Hopper, Georgia O`Keeffe, and Barnett Newman, among others.
Everett Shinn (American, 1876 - 1953)
The Hippodrome, London, 1902
Oil on canvas
The Art Institute of Chicago
Photo © bpk; The Art Institute of Chicago / Art Resource, NY
Access Opera: Open Rehearsals for Students
The Metropolitan Opera
More than 80 years ago, the Metropolitan Opera hosted its first student performance, inaugurating its long history of welcoming students to the house through attendance at final dress rehearsals. A joint program between the Metropolitan Opera and the Metropolitan Opera Guild, Access Opera: Open Rehearsals for Students now draws 15,000 students annually from across the New York tri-state area, as well as from Vermont and Pennsylvania. With curriculum support materials and teacher training workshops, along with ushers and staff guides at the front of the house, the Met aims to make students’ experiences at the opera house welcoming, entertaining, and educational.
During the 2017–18 season, 195 participating schools from five states attended 13 final dress rehearsals, with the cost of tickets greatly subsidized to make them accessible for schools. Inviting students to experience the cutting-edge stagecraft and the highest level of artistry of the Metropolitan Opera at its home in Lincoln Center is an essential part of the Met’s mission.
Major sponsorship of the Metropolitan Opera’s Access Opera:
Open Rehearsals for Students program is provided by Bank of America.
Željko Lučić as Scarpia and Sonya Yoncheva in the title role of Puccini’s Tosca
Photo: Ken Howard/Metropolitan Opera
Winslow Homer and the Camera: Photography and the Art of Painting
Bank of America is pleased to be the national sponsor of Winslow Homer and the Camera: Photography and the Art of Painting, the first exhibition to explore the role of photography in Winslow Homer’s artistic practice. Following its debut at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, the exhibition will travel to The Brandywine River Museum of Art, where it will be on display from November 17, 2018, to February 17, 2019.
The exhibition brings together over 120 works by the artist, as well as related objects. Paintings, drawings, prints and photographs captured during Homer’s travels to Europe, the Bahamas, Cuba and Florida in the 1880s, as well as period ephemera from the artist’s studio, such as the wooden mannequins he used to draft compositions, his watercolor brushes, his walking stick, and two of the three cameras he owned, provide an enlightening look into the artist’s working methods. After four years of painstaking research examining the influence that the relatively new medium of photography had on the work of Homer, the Bowdoin College Museum of Art presents this important exhibition.
Winslow Homer and the Camera: Photography and the Art of Painting lends credence to a long-held belief that the advent of photography led many artists of the time to shift away from capturing objective reality — since the camera could now serve this function — in favor of a more subjective form of expression. It is in this light that many art historians are now making the case that Homer should be considered as a protomodernist rather than being characterized as a realist.
In 2014, Neal Paulsen, a long-time resident of Scarborough, Maine, donated a Mawson & Swan camera (circa 1880) once owned by Homer to the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. A resident of nearby Prouts Neck, Maine, Homer was inspired to paint many of the great themes of his artistic career: the struggle of people against the sea and the relationship of fragile, transient human life to the timelessness of nature.
In 1861, as a young artist working for Harper’s Weekly during the Civil War, Homer was sent to the battlefront in Virginia, serving as an artist-correspondent for the illustrated journal. Homer referenced graphic war photography as source material for some of his work, incorporating his personal vision with insights drawn from photographs into his composition development.
Following the Civil War, Homer resided in New York City, making his living chiefly by designing magazine illustrations while also building his reputation as a painter. The late 1860s and 1870s were a time of artistic experimentation and prolific and varied output for Homer.
He frequently traveled throughout the Northeast, visiting New Hampshire’s White Mountains, Massachusetts’s Cape Ann, and New York State’s Catskill and Adirondack mountains, where he came to discover how photography was newly being used to capture the region’s natural beauty for the purpose of promoting tourism. In such photographs, Homer became particularly interested in photographic effects that might not readily be perceived by the eye in a single moment in time, including glare, blur and shadow, which would come to influence his style significantly.
In 1882, Homer traveled to Europe, taking up residence in Cullercoats, a remote fishing village in northern England. It was there that he purchased what is believed to be his very first camera, manufactured by Mawson & Swan based in the nearby northern city of Newcastle upon Tyne.
After a two-year stint in Cullercoats, Homer returned to the United States, moving in 1884 to Prouts Neck, Maine, where he would establish his studio and home and reside until his death in 1910.
Winslow Homer with “The Gulf Stream” in his Studio, c. 1900, gelatin silver print, by an unidentified photographer.
Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, Maine.
Smithsonian Cultural Rescue Initiative
Lead corporate sponsor
Bank of America is proud to support the Smithsonian Cultural Rescue Initiative (SCRI). Recognizing that the loss of cultural heritage can be psychologically and socioeconomically devastating, its mission is to protect cultural heritage threatened or impacted by human-made or natural disasters and to help communities in the U.S. and around the world preserve their identities and history.
When announcing the sponsorship, Bank of America chairman and CEO Brian Moynihan, stated, “Bank of America stands by the passionate and brave men and women who work, sometimes at personal risk, to protect cherished treasures for future generations.”
Since its founding in 2010, the program has recovered and conserved more than 50,000 pieces of endangered cultural material around the world.
After the devastating earthquake that occurred in Haiti in January 2010, which killed more than 250,000 Haitians, and left 1.5 million people homeless, the Institution launched the Haiti Cultural Recovery Project, working in partnership with the government of Haiti’s Ministry of Culture and Communication. Over the course of eighteen months, many important collections of art, artifacts, museum objects, architectural features, documents, film, photographs, video, and sound recordings were successfully rescued, recovered, and safeguarded.
Following hurricanes Sandy, Harvey, and Maria, SCRI projects have helped individuals and institutions learn how to rescue, restore, and safeguard a wide range of culturally significant artifacts storm-ravaged states such as New York and Texas, and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
The SCRI is also active in war-torn countries, engaged in cultural rescue work and in educating governmental agencies and cultural heritage professionals as well as military personnel connected to museums, monuments, and other treasured historic sites. From risk assessment and emergency planning to damage mitigation, SCRI projects have been instrumental in preserving cultural heritage in countries such as Syria, Iraq, Nepal and Mali.
Smithsonian Cultural Rescue Initiative (SCRI)
Nepalese military and cultural heritage professionals team up to rescue architectural fragments at a temple in Kathmandu.
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
Presenting Sponsor of Performances for Young Audiences
National Sponsor of Theater for Young Audiences on Tour
Bank of America is proud to be the Presenting Sponsor of Performances for Young Audiences at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C., for the 2018–2019 season and the 2018–2019 National Sponsor for the Kennedy Center’s Theater for Young Audiences on Tour.
In Washington, D.C., the Kennedy Center brings to the stage 17 productions of compelling theater, lively music and energetic dance for family members ages three and up. Among the highlights are several newly commissioned world premieres, many featuring young protagonists with whom the audience can identify.
The season begins with American Revolution. From October 12 to 14, 2018, seven actors from the imaginative physical theater group within Chicago’s award-winning Theater Unspeakable tell the story of the American Revolution.
Confined to an elevated, 21-square-foot miniature stage, using only their bodies to convey the action, and with just 50 minutes to perform, the group takes audiences on a fun and daring journey from Lexington to Yorktown.
The first of four plays commissioned by the Kennedy Center, Long Way Down, running from October 27 to 29, 2018, will sweep up audiences in the gripping and suspenseful story of a 15-year-old boy determined to avenge the death of his brother, who has just been shot outside of their apartment building.
Running from January 11 to 13, 2019, is Cartography, created by two artists who have worked with refugees around the world. Christopher Myers and Kaneza Schaal, together with New York-based company ArKtype, explore the lives of child refugees seeking a better life and the role that we all play in contributing to global migration.
The second Kennedy Center-commissioned play is How to Catch a Star, a multimedia and movement-based adaptation of the New York Times best-selling children’s picture book authored by Oliver Jeffers. Created and directed by Obie Award-winner Jared Mezzocchi, the play explores the wonders of friendship, discovery and chasing their dreams.
The third play commissioned by the Kennedy Center is She a Gem, running from February 15 to 24, 2019. Created by award-winning writer Josh Wilder, the play tells the story of four young women, living together in a transition home in an inner-city Philadelphia neighborhood, who come together to form a double-Dutch team to compete in a neighborhood pageant.
From March 15 to 24, 2019, the final Kennedy Center-commissioned play debuts, The Watsons go to Birmingham — 1963. Based on the work of historical fiction written by Christopher Paul Curtis, the story has been adapted into a staged concert reading created by Christina Ham. At a turbulent time in the history of the Civil Rights movement, a Flint, Michigan, family heads to Birmingham, Alabama, to spend the summer. Told from the point of view of 10-year-old Kenny, the story conveys the dramatic effects the 1963 Birmingham church bombing has in bringing a family together and enduring a tragic era in American history.
Kennedy Center’s Theater for Young Audiences on Tour will kick off in early 2019 with Me…Jane: The Dreams & Adventures of Young Jane Goodall. Audiences will be treated to a musical about the early and influential years of primatologist, conservationist and animal rights activist Jane Goodall. Follow young Jane and her toy chimpanzee Jubilee as they learn about the world around them and the importance of protecting all living species.
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
Performances for Young Audiences
Chicago Symphony Orchestra
As part of our ongoing commitment to the arts, Bank of America is proud to continue as the Global Sponsor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
Founded in 1891, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO) is widely regarded as one of the world’s greatest orchestras. Bank of America’s global partnership with the CSO began with the historic 2010/11 season, when Maestro Riccardo Muti began his tenure as Music Director. Muti’s dedication to bringing live symphonic music of the highest caliber to the broadest possible audience has served as the cornerstone of the CSO’s mission.
Bank of America’s support encompasses the CSO main series classical concerts at Chicago’s Symphony Center; two signature fundraising events, Symphony Ball and Corporate Night; their annual free Concert for Chicago; and the CSO on Tour, both domestic and international.
Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Founding Member and Dedicated Supporter
September 24, 2016, marked a signature moment in the history of the United States when the only national museum devoted to African American history and culture opened on the Washington Mall after more than twelve years of planning and development. Following an Act of Congress in 2003, which sought to establish the museum, work to raise funds and develop the museum’s plans began in earnest. The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is the nineteenth Smithsonian Institution museum.
In 2011, a museum Council was formed. Brian Moynihan, Bank of America CEO, became one of its founding members. We would go on to become a founding donor in 2014 and to sponsor many of the historic opening events that took place throughout the fall of 2016.
Bank of America was an early supporter of the development of the museum. In 2013, we sponsored Save our African American Treasures, a national program dedicated to supporting historians, cultural anthropologists, and experts from the art world to identify and preserve items of historical and cultural significance tucked away in the attics, closets and basements of Americans across the country. Recognizing the significance of these artifacts, some owners chose to donate them to the museum, while others benefited from receiving an invaluable education on the meaning, value, and proper safekeeping of their treasured possessions.
Through the Art Conservation Project, Bank of America provided funding for the conservation of nine noteworthy works by African American artists. The works are featured in Visual Art and the American Experience, the only permanent art exhibition on the Smithsonian Mall dedicated to illustrating the critical role American artists of African descent played in shaping the history of American art.
From the Bank of America Collection, we were pleased to donate more than sixty photographs by Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, the distinguished artist who, from 1977 through 1982, documented the unique culture of the Gullah community of Daufuskie Island in South Carolina.
In September of 2017, Bank of America signed on to become one of the sponsors of the museum’s first anniversary celebration. Most recently, we were proud to sponsor of one of the museum’s Black History Month discussions, Finding Common Ground.
Co-hosted by The National Museum of African American History and Culture and the National Museum of the American Indian on February 15, and moderated by Michel Martin, weekend host of NPR’s All Things Considered, Finding Common Ground focused on the complex, sometimes fraught, history of African Americans and Native Americans, and how their intertwined stories and experiences have become an essential part of the American identity. Speakers included Lonnie G. Bunch III, Founding Director of the National Museum of African American History and Culture, and Kevin Gover, Director of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Season Sponsor and NYO-USA supporter
Bank of America is the Season Sponsor of Carnegie Hall, the world’s most famous concert hall, and a proud supporter of NYO-USA.
Carnegie Hall’s 2018–2019 season features approximately 170 performances by many of the world’s leading artists and ensembles in classical, pop, jazz, and world music, plus a broad range of innovative education and social impact programs created by Carnegie Hall’s Weill Music Institute (WMI), serving audiences in New York City and beyond.
Carnegie Hall’s mission is to bring the transformative power of music to the widest possible audience by featuring extraordinary performances on its three stages, leading visionary educational programs, and promoting the cultivation of rising musical artists and new works to attract a broad array of audiences.
In support of its mission, WMI created the National Youth Orchestra of the United States of America (NYO-USA), composed of the best instrumentalists, ages 16 to 19, to nurture the next generation of musical artists. Following a comprehensive audition process and a three-week training residency with leading professional orchestral musicians, these select teenagers will embark on a tour of some of the greatest musical capitals in the world, while serving as dynamic music ambassadors representing the future of music.
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater
International Tour Sponsor
Since 2011, Bank of America has supported Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater as their International Tour Sponsor.
Our support of this major American performing arts organization to tour internationally is part of Bank of America’s efforts to increase cultural understanding and open opportunities for dialogue through the arts.
Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater was founded in 1958 by dancer/choreographer Alvin Ailey to share the richness of the African-American cultural experience and the American modern dance tradition with the world. At each destination, thousands of people enjoy masterful performances and share cultural experiences with fellow audiences across the globe. Recognized by the U.S. Congress as a vital “Cultural Ambassador to the World,” the company has performed for more than 23 million people in 48 states and 71 countries on six continents.
Bank of America is proud to support Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater’s 2019 International Tour.
Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian
Bank of America is pleased to sponsor Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations, on view at The Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian from September 21, 2014, through fall 2018.
Nation to Nation, 10 years in the making, brings together the largest historical collection of treaties made between the United States and American Indian Nations, along with more than 125 related artifacts, photographs and contemporary objects. It is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Treaties; Serious Diplomacy; Bad Acts, Bad Paper; Great Nations Keep Their Word; and The Future of Treaties.
Introduction to Treaties provides an overview of the vastly different perspectives held between non-native settlers and Native Americans, from concepts of land ownership, civic organization and leadership to the very nature and purpose of diplomacy.
Serious Diplomacy reveals the initial good intentions of settlers of the early republic, seeking security and peaceful coexistence. One of the earliest treaties on display is the Treaty of Canandaigua, signed in 1794 by members of the Iroquois Confederacy, Cornplanter, Red Jacket and Handsome Lake, and President George Washington. It allowed for the establishment of Indian territories and provided annual compensation to tribes in exchange for free passage through their lands and access to their harbors and rivers.
Bad Acts, Bad Paper highlights the events that transpired in the 1800s, when the United States’ territorial ambitions led it to craft treaties designed to confiscate Indian lands and push Native Nations west of the Mississippi. These nations also fell victim to the competing interests and conflicts between individual states and the federal government. Many states sought and won exemptions from federal treaties and went on to take the law, and Indian territories, into their own hands.
Great Nations Keep Their Word focuses on the 1900s, when the surviving Native Nations more successfully appealed for the enforcement of treaties and their rights. Efforts by Congress to nullify many pre-existing treaties were met with strong opposition and eventual defeat, while others would ultimately be struck down in U.S. courts. These victories helped to restore both the dignity and self-determination of the Native Nations.
The Future of Treaties focuses on the impact that existing treaties continue to have on relations between the United States and Native Nations and points to a future likely to be filled with both struggle and hope.
Thomas Jefferson peace medal, 1801, owned by Powder Face (Northern Inunaina/Arapaho), Oklahoma Bronze Copper alloy, hide, porcupine quills, feathers, dye, metal cones
Photo credit: Walter Larrimore
Ambrogio Maestri in the title role of Verdi’s Falstaff
Photo: Ken Howard/Metropolitan Opera